• The OSI model and the TCP/IP stack detailed description

    In communication, it is critical to have a common language and semantics that both parties can understand for the communication to be effective. This can be thought of as having a common language when talking of human communication, and as a protocol while talking of computer networking/communications. As discussed in the previous section, with the advent of computer networking, many vendors came out with their own proprietary protocols for computers to talk to each other, leading to interoperability issues between computer systems and networking was limited to devices from the same vendor. You can't get a person who knows only Chinese to effectively communicate with a person who knows only Russian!